Image Processing (RCS082)
MCQ’s Questions of Image Processing
Unit 1
1. What is the first and foremost step in Image Processing?
a) Image restoration
b) Image enhancement
c) Image acquisition
d) Segmentation
Answer: c
2. In which step of processing, the images are subdivided successively into smaller regions?
a) Image enhancement
b) Image acquisition
c) Segmentation
d) Wavelets
Answer: d
3. What is the next step in image processing after compression?
a) Wavelets
b) Segmentation
c) Representation and description
d) Morphological processing
Answer: d
4. What is the step that is performed before color image processing in image processing?
a) Wavelets and multi resolution processing
b) Image enhancement
c) Image restoration
d) Image acquisition
Answer: c
5. How many number of steps are involved in image processing?
a) 10
b) 9
c) 11
d) 12
Answer: a
6. What is the expanded form of JPEG?
a) Joint Photographic Expansion Group
b) Joint Photographic Experts Group
c) Joint Photographs Expansion Group
d) Joint Photographic Expanded Group
Answer: b
7. Which of the following step deals with tools for extracting image components those are useful in the representation and description of shape?
a) Segmentation
b) Representation & description
c) Compression
d) Morphological processing
Answer: d
8. In which step of the processing, assigning a label (e.g., “vehicle”) to an object based on its descriptors is done?
a) Object recognition
b) Morphological processing
c) Segmentation
d) Representation & description
Answer: a
9. What role does the segmentation play in image processing?
a) Deals with extracting attributes that result in some quantitative information of interest
b) Deals with techniques for reducing the storage required saving an image, or the bandwidth required transmitting it
c) Deals with partitioning an image into its constituent parts or objects
d) Deals with property in which images are subdivided successively into smaller regions
Answer: c
10. Among the following image processing techniques which is fast, precise and flexible.
a) Optical
b) Digital
c) Electronic
d) Photographic
Answer: b
11. An image is considered to be a function of a(x,y), where a represents:
a) Height of image
b) Width of image
c) Amplitude of image
d) Resolution of image
Answer: c
12. What is pixel?
a) Pixel is the elements of a digital image
b) Pixel is the elements of an analog image
c) Pixel is the cluster of a digital image
d) Pixel is the cluster of an analog image
Answer: a
13. The range of values spanned by the gray scale is called:
a) Dynamic range
b) Band range
c) Peak range
d) Resolution range
Answer: a
14. Which is a colour attribute that describes a pure colour?
a) Saturation
b) Hue
c) Brightness
d) Intensity
Answer: b
15. Which gives a measure of the degree to which a pure colour is diluted by white light?
a) Saturation
b) Hue
c) Intensity
d) Brightness
Answer: a
16. Which means the assigning meaning to a recognized object?
a) Interpretation
b) Recognition
c) Acquisition
d) Segmentation
Answer: a
17. The transition between continuous values of the image function and its digital equivalent is called ______________
a) Quantisation
b) Sampling
c) Rasterisation
d) None of the Mentioned
Answer: a
18. Images quantised with insufficient brightness levels will lead to the occurrence of ____________
a) Pixillation
b) Blurring
c) False Contours
d) None of the Mentioned
Answer: c
19. The smallest discernible change in intensity level is called ____________
a) Intensity Resolution
b) Contour
c) Saturation
d) Contrast
Answer: a
20. What is the tool used in tasks such as zooming, shrinking, rotating, etc.?
a) Sampling
b) Interpolation
c) Filters
d) None of the Mentioned
Answer: b
21. The type of Interpolation where for each new location the intensity of the immediate pixel is assigned is ___________
a) bicubic interpolation
b) cubic interpolation
c) bilinear interpolation
d) nearest neighbour interpolation
Answer: d
22. The type of Interpolation where the intensity of the FOUR neighbouring pixels is used to obtain intensity a new location is called ___________
a) cubic interpolation
b) nearest neighbour interpolation
c) bilinear interpolation
d) bicubic interpolation
Answer: b
23. Dynamic range of imaging system is a ratio where the upper limit is determined by
a) Saturation
b) Noise
c) Brightness
d) Contrast
Answer: a
24. For Dynamic range ratio the lower limit is determined by
a) Saturation
b) Brightness
c) Noise
d) Contrast
Answer: c
25. Histogram equalization or Histogram linearization is represented by of the following equation:
a) s_{k} =∑^{k} _{j} =1 n_{j}/n k=0,1,2,……,L1
b) s_{k} =∑^{k} _{j} =0 n_{j}/n k=0,1,2,……,L1
c) s_{k} =∑^{k} _{j} =0 n/n_{j} k=0,1,2,……,L1
d) s_{k} =∑^{k} _{j} =n n_{j}/n k=0,1,2,……,L1
Answer: b
26. What is the method that is used to generate a processed image that have a specified histogram?
a) Histogram linearization
b) Histogram equalization
c) Histogram matching
d) Histogram processing
Answer: c
27. Histograms are the basis for numerous spatial domain processing techniques.
a) True
b) False
Answer: a
28. In a dark image, the components of histogram are concentrated on which side of the grey scale?
a) High
b) Medium
c) Low
d) Evenly distributed
Answer: c
29. Which of the following is the primary objective of sharpening of an image?
a) Blurring the image
b) Highlight fine details in the image
c) Increase the brightness of the image
d) Decrease the brightness of the image
Answer: b
30. Image sharpening process is used in electronic printing.
a) True
b) False
Answer: a
31. In spatial domain, which of the following operation is done on the pixels in sharpening the image?
a) Integration
b) Average
c) Median
d) Differentiation
Answer: d
32. Image differentiation enhances the edges, discontinuities and deemphasizes the pixels with slow varying gray levels.
a) True
b) False
Answer: a
33. In which of the following cases, we wouldn’t worry about the behaviour of sharpening filter?
a) Flat segments
b) Step discontinuities
c) Ramp discontinuities
d) Slow varying gray values
Answer: d
34. Which of the following is the valid response when we apply a first derivative?
a) Nonzero at flat segments
b) Zero at the onset of gray level step
c) Zero in flat segments
d) Zero along ramps
Answer: c
35. Which of the following is not a valid response when we apply a second derivative?
a) Zero response at onset of gray level step
b) Nonzero response at onset of gray level step
c) Zero response at flat segments
d) Nonzero response along the ramps
Answer: b
36. If f(x,y) is an image function of two variables, then the first order derivative of a one dimensional function, f(x) is:
a) f(x+1)f(x)
b) f(x)f(x+1)
c) f(x1)f(x+1)
d) f(x)+f(x1)
Answer: a
37. Isolated point is also called as noise point.
a) True
b) False
Answer: a
38. What is the thickness of the edges produced by first order derivatives when compared to that of second order derivatives?
a) Finer
b) Equal
c) Thicker
d) Independent
Answer: c
39. First order derivative can enhance the fine detail in the image compared to that of second order derivative.
a) True
b) False
Answer: b
40. Which of the following derivatives produce a double response at step changes in gray level?
a) First order derivative
b) Third order derivative
c) Second order derivative
d) First and second order derivatives
Answer: c
41. Which graylevel transformation increase the dynamic range of graylevel in the image?
a) Powerlaw transformations
b) Negative transformations
c) Contrast stretching
d) None of the mentioned
Answer: c
42. When is the contrast stretching transformation a linear function, for r and s as grayvalue of image before and after processing respectively?
a) r_{1} = s_{1} and r_{2} = s_{2}
b) r_{1} = r_{2}, s_{1} = 0 and s_{2} = L – 1, L is the max gray value allowed
c) r_{1} = 1 and r_{2} = 0
d) None of the mentioned
Answer: a
43. When is the contrast stretching transformation a thresholding function, for r and s as grayvalue of image before and after processing respectively?
a) r_{1} = s_{1} and r_{2} = s_{2}
b) r_{1} = r_{2}, s_{1} = 0 and s_{2} = L – 1, L is the max gray value allowed
c) r_{1} = 1 and r_{2} = 0
d) None of the mentioned
Answer: b
44. What condition prevents the intensity artifacts to be created while processing with contrast stretching, if r and s are grayvalues of image before and after processing respectively?
a) r_{1} = s_{1} and r_{2} = s_{2}
b) r_{1} = r_{2}, s_{1} = 0 and s_{2} = L – 1, L is the max gray value allowed
c) r_{1} = 1 and r_{2} = 0
d) r_{1} ≤ r_{2} and s_{1} ≤ s_{2}
Answer: d
45. A contrast stretching result been obtained by setting (r_{1}, s_{1}) = (r_{min}, 0) and (r_{2}, s_{2}) = (r_{max}, L – 1), where, r and s are grayvalues of image before and after processing respectively, L is the max gray value allowed and r_{max} and r_{min} are maximum and minimum grayvalues in image respectively. What should we term the transformation function if r_{1} = r_{2} = m, some mean grayvalue.
a) Linear function
b) Thresholding function
c) Intermediate function
d) None of the mentioned
Answer: b
46. A specific range of graylevels highlighting is the basic idea of __________
a) Contrast stretching
b) Bit –plane slicing
c) Thresholding
d) Graylevel slicing
Answer: d
47. What is/are the approach(s) of the graylevel slicing?
a) To give all gray level of a specific range high value and a low value to all other gray levels
b) To brighten the pixels grayvalue of interest and preserve the background
c) All of the mentioned
d) None of the mentioned
Answer: c
48. Specific bit contribution in the image highlighting is the basic idea of __________
a) Contrast stretching
b) Bit –plane slicing
c) Thresholding
d) Graylevel slicing
Answer: b
49. Which of the following helps to obtain the number of bits to be used to quantize each pixel.
a) Graylevel slicing
b) Contrast stretching
c) Contouring
d) Bitplane slicing
Answer: d
50. Which of the following in an image can be removed by using smoothing filter?
a) Smooth transitions of gray levels
b) Smooth transitions of brightness levels
c) Sharp transitions of gray levels
d) Sharp transitions of brightness levels
Answer: c
Unit 2
1. If the Gaussian filter is expressed as H(u, v) = e^{(D2} (u,v)/2D _{0}^{2}),where D(u, v) is the distance from point(u, v), D_{0} is the distance defining cutoff frequency, then for what value of D(u, v) the filter is down to 0.607 of its maximum value?
a) D(u, v) = D_{0}
b) D(u, v) = D_{0}^{2}
c) D(u, v) = D_{0}^{3}
d) D(u, v) = 0
Answer: a
2. State the statement as true or false. “The GLPF did produce as much smoothing as the BLPF of order 2 for the same value of cutoff frequency”.
a) True
b) False
Answer: b
3. In general, which of the following assures of no ringing in the output?
a) Gaussian Lowpass Filter
b) Ideal Lowpass Filter
c) Butterworth Lowpass Filter
d) All of the mentioned
Answer: a
4. The lowpass filtering process can be applied in which of the following area(s)?
a) The field of machine perception, with application of character recognition
b) In field of printing and publishing industry
c) In field of processing satellite and aerial images
d) All of the mentioned
Answer: d
5. The edges and other abrupt changes in graylevel of an image are associated with_________
a) High frequency components
b) Low frequency components
c) Edges with high frequency and other abrupt changes in graylevel with low frequency components
d) Edges with low frequency and other abrupt changes in graylevel with high frequency components
Answer: a
6. A type of Image is called as VHRR image. What is the definition of VHRR image?
a) Very High Range Resolution image
b) Very High Resolution Range image
c) Very High Resolution Radiometer image
d) Very High Range Radiometer Image
Answer: c
7. The Image sharpening in frequency domain can be achieved by which of the following method(s)?
a) Attenuating the high frequency components
b) Attenuating the lowfrequency components
c) All of the mentioned
d) None of the mentioned
Answer: b
8. The function of filters in Image sharpening in frequency domain is to perform reverse operation of which of the following Lowpass filter?
a) Gaussian Lowpass filter
b) Butterworth Lowpass filter
c) Ideal Lowpass filter
d) None of the Mentioned
Answer: c
9. If D_{0} is the cutoff distance measured from origin of frequency rectangle and D(u, v) is the distance from point(u, v). Then what value does an Ideal Highpass filter will give if D(u, v) ≤ D0 andifD(u, v) >D0?
a) 0 and 1 respectively
b) 1 and 0 respectively
c) 1 in both case
d) 0 in both case
Answer: a
10. What is the relation of the frequencies to a circle of radius D_{0}, where D_{0} is the cutoff distance measured from origin of frequency rectangle, for an Ideal Highpass filter?
a) IHPF sets all frequencies inside circle to zero
b) IHPF allows all frequencies, without attenuating, outside the circle
c) All of the mentioned
d) None of the mentioned
Answer: c
11. Which of the following is the transfer function of the Butterworth Highpass Filter, of order n, D_{0} is the cutoff distance measured from origin of frequency rectangle and D(u, v) is the distance from point(u, v)?
a) H(u,v)=1/1+[(D0/D(u,v)]^2n
b) H(u,v)={0 if D(u,v) <= D0 and 1 if D(u,v)> D0}
c) H(u,v)=1e^D^2(u,v)/2D0^2
d) none of the mentioned
Answer: a
12. Which of the following is the transfer function of the Ideal Highpass Filter? Given D_{0} is the cutoff distance measured from origin of frequency rectangle and D(u, v) is the distance from point(u, v).
a) H(u,v)=1/1+[(D0/D(u,v)]^2n
b) H(u,v)={0 if D(u,v) <= D0 and 1 if D(u,v)> D0}
c) H(u,v)=1e^D^2(u,v)/2D0^2
d) none of the mentioned
Answer: b
13. Which of the following is the transfer function of the Gaussian Highpass Filter? Given D_{0} is the cutoff distance measured from origin of frequency rectangle and D(u, v) is the distance from point(u, v).
a) H(u,v)=1/1+[(D0/D(u,v)]^2n
b) H(u,v)={0 if D(u,v) <= D0 and 1 if D(u,v)> D0}
c) H(u,v)=1e^D^2(u,v)/2D0^2
d) none of the mentioned
Answer: c
14. For a given image having smaller objects, which of the following filter(s), having D_{0} as the cutoff distance measured from origin of frequency rectangle, would you prefer for a comparably smoother result?
a) IHLF with D_{0} 15
b) BHPF with D_{0} 15 and order 2
c) GHPF with D_{0} 15 and order 2
d) All of the mentioned
Answer: c
15. Which of the following statement(s) is true for the given fact that “Applying Highpass filters has an effect on the background of the output image”?
a) The average background intensity increases to near white
b) The average background intensity reduces to near black
c) The average background intensity changes to a value average of black and white
d) All of the mentioned
Answer: b
16. Color model is also named as (another name):
a) Color space
b) Color gap
c) Color space & color system
d) Color system
Answer: c
17. What do you mean by the term pixel depth?
a) It is the number of bits used to represent each pixel in RGB space
b) It is the number of bytes used to represent each pixel in RGB space
c) It is the number of units used to represent each pixel in RGB space
d) It is the number of mm used to represent each pixel in RGB space
Answer: a
18. How many bit RGB color image is represented by fullcolor image?
a) 32bit RGB color image
b) 24bit RGB color image
c) 16bit RGB color image
d) 8bit RGB color image
Answer: b
19. What is the equation used to obtain I(Intensity) component of each RGB pixel in RGB color format?
a) I=1/2(R+G+B)
b) I=1/3(R+G+B)
c) I=1/3(RGB)
d) I=1/3(RG+B)
Answer: b
20. What is the equation used for obtaining R value in terms of HSI components?
a) R=I[1(S cosH)/cos(60°H) ].
b) R=I[1+(S cosH)/cos(120°H)].
c) R=I[1+(S cosH)/cos(60°H) ].
d) R=I[1+(S cosH)/cos(30°H) ].
Answer: c
21. What is the equation used for calculating B value in terms of HSI components?
a) B=I(1+S)
b) B=S(1I)
c) B=S(1+I)
d) B=I(1S)
Answer: d
22. What is the equation used for calculating G value in terms of HSI components?
a) G=3I(R+B)
b) G=3I+(R+B)
c) G=3I(RB)
d) G=2I(R+B)
Answer: a
23. Which of the following color models are used for color printing?
a) RGB
b) CMY
c) CMYK
d) CMY and CMYK
Answer: d
24. Which of the following fact(s) is/are true for the relationship between low frequency component of Fourier transform and the rate of change of gray levels?
a) Moving away from the origin of transform the low frequency corresponds to smooth gray level variation
b) Moving away from the origin of transform the low frequencies corresponds to abrupt change in gray level
c) All of the mentioned
d) None of the mentioned
Answer: c
25. Which of the following fact(s) is/are true for the relationship between high frequency component of Fourier transform and the rate of change of gray levels?
a) Moving away from the origin of transform the high frequency corresponds to smooth gray level variation
b) Moving away from the origin of transform the higher frequencies corresponds to abrupt change in gray level
c) All of the mentioned
d) None of the mentioned
Answer: b
26. What is the name of the filter that multiplies two functions F(u, v) and H(u, v), where F has complex components too since is Fourier transformed function of f(x, y), in an order that each component of H multiplies both real and complex part of corresponding component in F?
a) Unsharp mask filter
b) Highboost filter
c) Zerophaseshiftfilter
d) None of the mentioned
Answer: c
27. To set the average value of an image zero, which of the following term would be set 0 in the frequency domain and the inverse transformation is done, where F(u, v) is Fourier transformed function of f(x, y)?
a) F(0, 0)
b) F(0, 1)
c) F(1, 0)
d) None of the mentioned
Answer: a
28. What is the name of the filter that is used to turn the average value of a processed image zero?
a) Unsharp mask filter
b) Notch filter
c) Zerophaseshiftfilter
d) None of the mentioned
Answer: b
29. Which of the following filter(s) attenuates high frequency while passing low frequencies of an image?
a) Unsharp mask filter
b) Lowpass filter
c) Zerophaseshift filter
d) All of the mentioned
Answer: b
30. Which of the following filter(s) attenuates low frequency while passing high frequencies of an image?
a) Unsharp mask filter
b) Highpass filter
c) Zerophaseshift filter
d) All of the mentioned
Answer: b
31. Which of the following filter have a less sharp detail than the original image because of attenuation of high frequencies?
a) Highpass filter
b) Lowpass filter
c) Zerophaseshift filter
d) None of the mentioned
Answer: b
32. The feature(s) of a highpass filtered image is/are ___________
a) Have less graylevel variation in smooth areas
b) Emphasized transitional graylevel details
c) An overall sharper image
d) All of the mentioned
Answer: d
33. A spatial domain filter of the corresponding filter in frequency domain can be obtained by applying which of the following operation(s) on filter in frequency domain?
a) Fourier transform
b) Inverse Fourier transform
c) None of the mentioned
d) All of the mentioned
Answer: b
34. A frequency domain filter of the corresponding filter in spatial domain can be obtained by applying which of the following operation(s) on filter in spatial domain?
a) Fourier transform
b) Inverse Fourier transform
c) None of the mentioned
d) All of the mentioned
Answer: a
35. Which of the following filtering is done in frequency domain in correspondence to lowpass filtering in spatial domain?
a) Gaussian filtering
b) Unsharp mask filtering
c) Highboost filtering
d) None of the mentioned
Answer: a
36. Using the feature of reciprocal relationship of filter in spatial domain and corresponding filter in frequency domain, which of the following fact is true?
a) The narrower the frequency domain filter results in increased blurring
b) The wider the frequency domain filter results in increased blurring
c) The narrower the frequency domain filter results in decreased blurring
d) None of the mentioned
Answer: a
37. A pixel p at coordinates (x, y) has neighbors whose coordinates are given by:
(x+1, y), (x1, y), (x, y+1), (x, y1)
This set of pixels is called ____________
a) 4neighbors of p
b) Diagonal neighbors
c) 8neighbors
d) None of the mentioned
Answer: a
38. A pixel p at coordinates (x, y) has neighbors whose coordinates are given by:
(x+1, y+1), (x+1, y1), (x1, y+1), (x1, y1)
This set of pixels is called ____________
a) 4neighbors of p
b) Diagonal neighbors
c) 8neighbors
d) None of the mentioned
Answer: b
39. What is the set of pixels of 8neighbors of pixel p at coordinates (x, y)?
a) (x+1, y), (x1, y), (x, y+1), (x, y1), (x+2, y), (x2, y), (x, y+2), (x, y2)
b) (x+1, y), (x1, y), (x, y+1), (x, y1), (x+1, y+1), (x+1, y1), (x1, y+1), (x1, y1)
c) (x+1, y+1), (x+1, y1), (x1, y+1), (x1, y1), (x+2, y+2), (x+2, y2), (x2, y+2), (x2, y2)
d) (x+2, y), (x2, y), (x, y+2), (x, y2), (x+2, y+2), (x+2, y2), (x2, y+2), (x2, y2)
Answer: b
40. Two pixels p and q having gray values from V, the set of graylevel values used to define adjacency, are madjacent if:
a) q is in N_{4}(p)
b) q is in N_{D}(p) and the set N_{4}(p) ∩ N_{4}(q) has no pixels whose values are from V
c) Any of the mentioned
d) None of the mentioned
Answer: c
41. Let S, a subset of pixels in an image, is said to be a connected set if:
a) If for any pixel p in S, the set of pixels that are connected to it in Sis only one
b) If it only has one connected component
c) If S is a region
d) All of the mentioned
Answer: d
42. Let R be a subset of pixels in an image. How can we define the contour of R?
a) If R is a region, and the set of pixels in R have one or more neighbors that are not in R
b) If R is an entire image, then the set of pixels in the first and last rows and columns of R
c) All of the mentioned
d) None of the mentioned
Answer: c
43. For pixels p(x, y), q(s, t), and z(v, w), D is a distance function or metric if:
a) D(p, q) ≥ 0
b) D(p, q) = D(q, p)
c) D(p, z) ≤ D(p, q) + D(q, z)
d) All of the mentioned
Answer: d
44. For pixels p(x, y), q(s, t), the Euclidean distance between p and q is defined as:
a) D(p, q) = [(x – s)^{2} + (y – t)^{2}]^{1/2}
b) D(p, q) = x – s + y – t
c) D(p, q) = max (x – s + y – t)
d) None of the mentioned
Answer: a
45. For pixels p(x, y), q(s, t), the cityblock distance between p and q is defined as:
a) D(p, q) = [(x – s)^{2} + (y – t)^{2}]^{1/2}
b) D(p, q) = x – s + y – t
c) D(p, q) = max (x – s + y – t)
d) None of the mentioned
Answer: b
46. The domain that refers to image plane itself and the domain that refers to Fourier transform of an image is/are :
a) Spatial domain in both
b) Frequency domain in both
c) Spatial domain and Frequency domain respectively
d) Frequency domain and Spatial domain respectively
Answer: c
47. What is the technique for a graylevel transformation function called, if the transformation would be to produce an image of higher contrast than the original by darkening the levels below some graylevel m and brightening the levels above m in the original image.
a) Contouring
b) Contrast stretching
c) Mask processing
d) Point processing
Answer: b
48. For Image Enhancement a generalapproach is to use a function of values of f (input image) in a predefined neighborhood of (x, y) to determine the value of g (output image) at (x, y). The techniques that uses such approaches are called ________
a) Contouring
b) Contrast stretching
c) Mask processing
d) None of the mentioned
Answer: c
49. The Laplacian in frequency domain is simply implemented by using filter __________
a) H(u, v)= (u^{2}– v^{2})
b) H(u, v)= (1)
c) H(u, v)= (u^{2}+ v^{2})
d) none of the mentioned
Answer: c
50. Assuming that the origin of F(u, v), Fourier transformed function of f(x, y) an input image, has been correlated by performing the operation f(x, y)(1)x+y prior to taking the transform of the image. If F and f are of same size, then what does the given operation is/are supposed to do?
a) Resize the transform
b) Rotate the transform
c) Shifts the center transform
d) All of the mentioned
Answer: c
Unit 3
1.Gaussian noise is referred to as
a.red noise
b.black noise
c.white noise
d.normal noise
Answer: (d).
2.Convolution in spatial domain is multiplication in
a.frequency domain
b.time domain
c.spatial domain
d.plane
Answer: (a).
3.Linear functions possesses the property of
a.additivity
b.homogeneity
c.multiplication
d.Both a and b
Answer: (d).
4.PDF in image processing is called
a.probability degraded function
b.probability density function
c.probabilistic degraded function
d.probabilistic density function
Answer: (b).
5.Filter that replaces the pixel value with the medians of intensity levels is
a.arithmetic mean filter
b.geometric mean filter
c.median filter
d.sequence mean filter
Answer: (c).
6.In geometric mean filters when alpha is equal to 1 then it works as
a.notch filter
b.bandpass filter
c.wiener filter
d.inverse filter
Answer: (d).
7.In wiener filtering it is assumed that noise and image are
a.different
b.homogenous
c.correlated
d.uncorrelated
Answer: (d).
8.EBCT scanners stands for
a.electrical beam computed tomography
b.electric beam computed tomography
c.electronic beam computed tomography
d.electron beam computed tomography
Answer: (d).
9. PSF stands for
a.probability spread function
b.point spread function
c.probability spike function
d.point spike function
Answer: (b).
10. Filter that performs opposite to band rejected filter is called
a.lowpass filter
b.bandpass filter
c.highpass filter
d.max filter
Answer: (b).
11.Degradation can be estimated by
a.2ways
b.3ways
c.4ways
d.5ways
Answer: (b).
12. The purpose of restoration is to gain
a. degraded image
b. original image
c. pixels
d. coordinates
Answer: (b).
13. Power spectra and noise of undegraded image must be known is a statement of
a. notch filter
b. bandpass filter
c. wiener filter
d.max filter
Answer: (c).
14. Contraharmonic mean filter produces
a.degraded image
b.original image
c.restored image
d.plane
Answer: (c).
15.One that is not the type of a mean filter
a.arithmetic mean filter
b.geometric mean filter
c.harmonic mean filter
d.sequence mean filter
Answer: (d).
16.Restoration can not be done using
a.single projection
b.double projection
c.triple projection
d.octa projection
Answer: (a).
17.Mean filters reduce noise using
a.sharpening
b.blurring
c.restoration
d.acquisition
Answer: (b).
18.In geometric mean filters when alpha is equal to 0 then it works as
a.notch filter
b.bandpass filter
c.parametric wiener filter
d.inverse filter
Answer: (c).
19.To improve the speed of convergence algorithm used is
a.newton
b.Raphson
c.wiener
d.newtonRaphson
Answer: (d).
20.Degraded image is produced using degradation process and
a.additive noise
b.destruction
c.pixels
d.coordinates
Answer: (a).
21.The inverse of image convolution is
a.image nonconvolution
b.image inconvolution
c.image deconvolution
d.image byconvolution
Answer: (c).
22.Impulse is simulated by
a.black dot
b.gray dot
c.bright dot
d.sharp dot
Answer: (c).
23.The approach to restoration is
a.inverse filtering
b.spike filtering
c.black filtering
d.ranking
Answer: (a).
24.Square of standard deviation is called
a.variance
b.noise
c.restoration
d.power
Answer: (a).
25.CT stands for
a.computerized tomography
b.computed tomography
c.computerized terminology
d.computed terminology
Answer: (b).
26.SNR in noise stands for
a.signal to noise ratio
b.serial to noise ratio
c.signal to notch ratio
d.serial to notch ratio
Answer: (a).
27.Approach that incorporates both degradation function and statistical noise in restoration is called
a.inverse filtering
b.spike filtering
c.wiener filtering
d.ranking
Answer: (c).
28.Bandreject filters are used where the noise components are usually
a.rejected
b.unknown
c.known
d.taken
Answer: (c).
29.Spatial filtering is used in the presence of
a.additive random noise
b.gamma noise
c.black noise
d.exponential noise
Answer: (a).
30.Order statistics filters are filters whose responses are based on
a.additive noise
b.probability density function
c.pixels
d.ranking
Answer: (d).
31.Images usually gets corrupted during
a.transmission
b.degradation
c.restoration
d.acquisition
Answer: (a).
32.Minimum mean square error filter is also called
a.square error filter
b.most square error filter
c.least square error filter
d.error filter
Answer: (c).
33.High frequency components are passed by
a.lowpass filter
b.bandpass filter
c.highpass filter
d.max filter
Answer: (c).
34.One that is not a type of a noise is
a.Rayleigh noise
b.gamma noise
c.black noise
d.exponential noise
Answer: (c).
35.Filter that replaces the pixel value with the minimum values of intensity levels is
a.max filter
b.geometric mean filter
c.median filter
d.min filter
Answer: (d).
36.FFT stands for
a.fast Fourier transform
b.frequency Fourier transform
c.frequency fast transform
d.fast frequency transform
Answer: (a).
37.Automatically determined filters provides inferior results as compared to
a.manually determined filters
b.bandpass filters
c.wiener filters
d.error filters
Answer: (a).
38.Frequencies in predefined neighborhood are rejected by
a.notch filter
b.bandpass filter
c.highpass filter
d.max filter
Answer: (a).
39.Degraded image is given in a
a.frequency domain
b.time domain
c.spatial domain
d.plane
Answer: (c).
40.Filter that computes midpoint between min and max value is called
a.max filter
b.midpoint filter
c.median filter
d.min filter
Answer: (b).
41.Low frequency components are passed by
a.lowpass filter
b.bandpass filter
c.highpass filter
d.max filter
Answer: (a).
42.Principle sources of noise arise during image
a.destruction
b.degradation
c.restoration
d.acquisition
Answer: (d).
43.Periodic noises arise from
a.electrical interference
b.gamma interference
c.beta interference
d.mechanical interference
Answer: (a).
44.Function having both properties of additivity and homogeneity is called
a.sharpening
b.spike noise
c.restoration
d.superposition
Answer: (d).
45.Fourier spectrum of noises are constant and usually called
a.red noise
b.black noise
c.white noise
d.green noise
Answer: (c).
46.Salt and pepper noise also referred to the term
a.Rayleigh noise
b.spike noise
c.black noise
d.exponential noise
Answer: (b).
47.Constrained least squares filter does not implies best in
a.Rayleigh noise
b.degradation
c.restoration
d.optimum restoration
Answer: (d).
48.Salt and pepper noise can interchangeably be used with
a.Rayleigh noise
b.gamma noise
c.black noise
d.impulse
Answer: (d).
49.Gaussian shape function has no
a.ones
b.zeros
c.pixels
d.coordinates
Answer: (b).
50.Filter that replaces the pixel value with the maximum values of intensity levels is
a.max filter
b.geometric mean filter
c.median filter
d.min filter
Answer: (a).
Unit 4
 Which is meant by assuming any two neighboring that are both edge pixels with consistent orientation?
a) Canny edge detection
b) Smoothing
c) Segmentation
d) None of the mentioned
Answer : a
2. What is the process of breaking an image into groups?
a) Edge detection
b) Smoothing
c) Segmentation
d) None of the mentioned
Answer : c
3. How many types of 3D image processing techniques are there in image perception?
a) 3
b) 4
c) 5
d) 6
Answer :c
4. Points exceeding the threshold in output image are marked as
 0
 1
 11
 X
Answer :b
5. Example of discontinuity approach in image segmentation is:
 Edge based segmentation
 Boundary based segmentation
 Region based segmentation
 Both a & b
Answer :d
6. Image segmentation is based on?
 Morphology
 Set theory
 Extraction
 Recognition
Answer :a
7. Images whose principle features are edges is called:
 Orthogonal
 Isolated
 Edge mapping
 Edge normal
Answer :c
8. If R is the entire region of the image then union of all segmented parts should be equal to
 R
 R’
 Rn
 Ri
Answer :a
9. Laplacian Images need:
 Contraction
 Expansion
 Scaling
 Enhancement
Answer :c
10. For point detection we use:
 First derivative
 Second derivative
 Third derivative
 Both a & b
Answer :b
11. Textured inner region of the object produces
 good boundary extraction
 excellent boundary extraction
 good boundary deletion
 excellent boundary deletion
Answer :a
12. If the standard deviation of the pixels is positive, then sub image is labeled as
 Black
 Green
 White
 Red
Answer :c
13. Thresholding gives the
 large image
 gray scale image
 color image
 binary image
Answer :d
14. Segmentation is a process of:
 low level processes
 high level processes
 mid level processes
 edge level processes
Answer :c
15. Segmentation algorithms depends on intensity values
 Discontinuity
 Similarity
 Continuity
 Both a & b
Answer :d
16. Sudden changes in intensity produces peak in
 first derivative
 second derivative
 third derivative
 Both a and b
Answer :a
17. Edge detector method is used to detect
 Area
 Line
 Point
 Edge
Answer :d
18. Accuracy of image segmentation can be improved by the type of
 Processes
 Images
 Divisions
 Sensors
Answer :d
19. During segmentation every pixel of an image should be in
 connected set
 boundaries
 region
 concerned area
Answer :c
20. For line detection we use
 first derivative
 second derivative
 third derivative
 Both a and b
Answer :b
21. When the desired object is detected segmentation should be
 Paused
 Cleared
 Continued
 Stopped
Answer :d
22. Similarity approach of segmentation depends upon
 low frequencies
 smooth changes
 abrupt changes
 Contrast
Answer :b
23. For edge detection we combine gradient with
 Sharpening
 set theory
 smoothing
 thresholding
Answer :d
24. Lines are referred as
 ramp edges
 step edges
 roof edges
 Both a and b
Answer :c
25. Edges arise between thin objects and backgrounds are
 ramp edges
 step edge
 roof edges
 thinness of edges
Answer :c
26. For edge detection we observes
 intensity transition
 shape transition
 color transition
 sign transition
Answer :d
27. Thresholding is the example of
 Discontinuity
 Similarity
 Continuity
 Recognition
Answer :b
28. Algorithm stating that boundaries of the image are different from background is
 Discontinuity
 Similarity
 Extraction
 Recognition
Answer :a
29. Edge detection has fundamental
 2 points
 3 points
 4 points
 5 points
Answer : b
30. Canny edge detection algorithm is based on
 Ideal Model
 step edge
 real model
 smoothing model
Answer : b
31. Segmentation is usually not perfect due to number of factors such as
a) Noise, Bad illumination
b) Object Contain several region
c) Due to boundaryfilling
d) Due to closed contour
Answer : a
32. What are the two approaches to segmentation?
 Haarlike feature & 3D rectangle approach
 Region based segmentation & edge segmentation
 Adaboost approach & edge segmentation
 None of the above
Answer : b
33. Which technique applies Edge segmentation
 Heuristics operator
 Canny operator
 All of the above
 None of the above
Answer : c
34. Criteria for region segmentation
 Pixels may be assigned to the same region
 Pixels may be assigned to the different region
 All of the above
 None of the above
Answer : a
35. Pixels are allocated to categories according to the range of values in which a pixel lies is called
 Thresholding based segmentation
 Edge based segmentation
 Region based segmentation
 None of the above
Answer : a
36. Edge element is associated with two components
 Magnitude of the gradient
 Region of the gradient
 All of the above
 None of the above
Answer : a
37. Threshold based segmentation is based on
 Number of clusters
 Clip level
 Number of regions
 All of the above
Answer : b
38. Which segmentation technique is based on clustering approaches?
 Kmeans algorithm
 Threshold based algorithm
 Histogram based algorithm
 Edge detection based algorithm
Answer : a
39. A gradient operator for edge detection is
 Roberts
 Second order derivative
 Zero crossing operator
 None
Answer : a
40. Image segmentation is the process of
 Partitioning a digital image into multiple segment
 Classify the image into number of object
 None of the above
 All of the above
Answer : a
41. Classical edge detectors uses
 Prewitt operator
 Robert operator
 Threshold operator
 Gaussian operator
Answer : a
42. Sobel edge detection uses
 First derivative
 Second derivative
 All of the above
 None of the above
Answer : a
43. Advantages of canny operator
 Simplicity of the method
 None of the above
 Performance is good, Using probability for finding error rate
 All of the above
Answer : c
44. Gray level image segmentation is generally based on two properties
 Discontinuity and similarity
 Continuity and similarity
 Only similarity
 None of the above
Answer : a
45. Edge based segmentation algorithm is using
 Discontinuity and similarity
 Threshold value
 None of the above
 Edge linking and boundary
Answer : d
46. The thresholding operation is a grey value remapping operation g defined by
 0 ( ) 1 if v t g v if v t ìü<=íýîþ³
 0 ( ) 1 if v t g v if v t ìü==íýîþ>
 1 ( ) 0 if v t g v if v t ìü>=íýîþ=
 None of the above
Answer : a
47. Grey level thresholding is a generalization of
 Edge detection
 Binary thresholding
 Both of the above
 None of the above
Answer : b
48. Region growing is a ……………image segmentation approach
 bottomup
 Top down
 All of the above
 None of the above
Answer : a
49. Example of Edge Detection Methods is
 Neural Networks Segmentation
 Graph Partitioning Methods
 Watershed Transformation
 Multiscale Segmentation
Answer : c
50. Example of Region Growing Methods is
 Level Set Methods
 Graph Partitioning Methods
 Watershed Transformation
 Neural Networks Segmentation
Answer : d
Unit 5
 For edge detection we use:
 First derivation
 Second derivation
 Third derivation
 Both A & B
Answer : a
2. What does the total number of pixels in the region defines?
a) Perimeter
b) Area
c) Intensity
d) Brightness
Answer : b
3. What is the unit of compactness of a region?
a) Meter
b) Meter2
c) No units
d) Meter1
Answer : c
4. For which of the following regions, compactness is minimal?
a) Rectangle
b) Square
c) Irregular
d) Disk
Answer : d
5. Compactness is insensitive to orientation.
a) True
b) False
Answer : a
6. Which of the following measures are not used to describe a region?
a) Mean and median of grey values
b) Minimum and maximum of grey values
c) Number of pixels alone
d) Number of pixels above and below mean
Answer : c
7. We cannot use normalized area as one of the region descriptor.
a) True
b) False
Answer : b
8. What is the study of properties of a figure that are unaffected by any deformation?
a) Topology
b) Geography
c) Statistics
d) Deformation
Answer : a
9. On which of the following operation of an image, the topology of the region changes?
a) Stretching
b) Rotation
c) Folding
d) Change in distance measure
Answer : c
10. Topological properties don’t depend on the distance measures.
a) True
b) False
Answer : a
11. What is the Euler number of the image shown below?
a) 0
b) 1
c) 2
d) 1
Answer : d
12. What is the Euler number of a region with polygonal network containing V,Q and F as the number of vertices, edges and faces respectively?
a) V+Q+F
b) VQ+F
c) V+QF
d) VQF
Answer : b
13. The texture of the region provides measure of which of the following properties?
a) Smoothness alone
b) Coarseness alone
c) Regularity alone
d) Smoothness, coarseness and regularity
Answer : d
14. What is the Euler number of the region shown in the figure below?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 1
d) 2
Answer : b
15. Which of the following techniques is based on the Fourier transform?
a) Structural
b) Spectral
c) Statistical
d) Topological
Answer : b
16. Structural techniques deal with the arrangement of image primitives.
a) True
b) False
Answer : a
17. The length of a boundary is one of the boundary descriptors.
a) True
b) False
Answer : a
18. Which of the following of a boundary is defined as the line perpendicular to the major axis?
a) Equilateral axis
b) Equidistant axis
c) Minor axis
d) Median axis
Answer : c
19. Which of the following is the useful descriptor of a boundary, whose value is given by the ratio of length of the major axis to the minor axis?
a) Radius
b) Perimeter
c) Area
d) Eccentricity
Answer : d
20. If the boundary is traversed in the clockwise direction, a vertex point ‘p’ is said to be a part of the convex segment if the rate of change of slope at ‘p’ is:
a) Negative
b) Zero
c) Non negative
d) Cannot be determined
Answer : c
21. The order of shape number for a closed boundary is:
a) Odd
b) Even
c) 1
d) Any positive value
Answer : b
22. What is the order of the shape number of a rectangular boundary with the dimensions of 3×3?
a) 3
b) 6
c) 9
d) 12
Answer : d
23. Statistical moments are used to describe the shape of boundary segments quantitatively.
a) True
b) False
Answer : a
24. Which of the following techniques of boundary descriptions have the physical interpretation of boundary shape?
a) Fourier transform
b) Statistical moments
c) Laplace transform
d) Curvature
Answer : b
25. Statistical moments is sensitive to rotation.
a) True
b) False
Answer : b
26. The code length of Huffman Coding does not depend on the frequency of occurrence of characters.
a) true
b) false
Answer : b
27. In Huffman coding, data in a tree always occur?
a) roots
b) leaves
c) left sub trees
d) right sub trees
Answer : b
28. From the following given tree, what is the code word for the character ‘a’?
a) 011
b) 010
c) 100
d) 101
Answer : a
29. What will be the cost of the code in Huffman coding if character c_{i} is at depth d_{i} and occurs at frequency f_{i}?
a) c_{i}f_{i}
b) ∫c_{i}f_{i}
c) ∑f_{i}d_{i}
d) f_{i}d_{i}
Answer : c
30. An optimal code will always be present in a full tree.
a) true
b) false
Answer : a
31. Which of the following is true about Huffman Coding?
(A) Huffman coding may become lossy in some cases
(B) Huffman Codes may not be optimal lossless codes in some cases
(C) In Huffman coding, no code is prefix of any other code.
(D) All of the above
Answer : c
32. The characters a to h have the set of frequencies based on the first 8 Fibonacci numbers as follows:
a : 1, b : 1, c : 2, d : 3, e : 5, f : 8, g : 13, h : 21
A Huffman code is used to represent the characters. What is the sequence of characters corresponding to the following code?
110111100111010
 fdheg
 ecgdf
 dchfg
 fehdg
Answer : a
33. When is Run Length Encoding used?
 When we want to compress patterns of data
 When we want to decompress patterns of data
 When we want to encode running videos
 Both a and b
Answer : d
34. Dilation followed by erosion is called
 Opening
 Closing
 Blurring
 Translation
Answer : b
35. Opening smooths the image’s
 Pixels
 Lines
 Contour
 Boundary
Answer : c
36. Structuring elements have origins at
 Top left
 Top right
 Center
 Bottom left
Answer : c
37. With dilation process images get
 Thinner
 Shrinked
 Thicker
 Sharpened
Answer : c
38. Opening and closing are each others
 Neighbours
 Duals
 Centers
 Corners
Answer : b
39. Fully containment of the SE in an image is required in
 Erosion
 ‘dilation
 Opening
 Closing
Answer : a
40. Erosion followed by dilation is called
 Opening
 Closing
 Blurring
 Translation
Answer : a
41. Hitormiss transformation is used for shape
 Removal
 Detection
 Compression
 Decompression
Answer : b
42. Subimages used to probe the image is called
 pixels
 frames
 structuring elements
 coordinates
Answer : c
43. Closing produces
 Narrow breaks
 Lines
 Dots
 Noise
Answer : a
44. Dilation is used for
 Bridging gaps
 Translation
 Scaling
 Rotation
Answer : a
45. The translation of set B is the
 {cc = b+z}
 {cc = bz}
 {cc = bxz}
 {cc = b}
Answer : a
46. (AoB)oB is equal to

 A .B
 A+B
 A o B
 AxB
Answer : c